From Ferrari Wiki
Geographic coordinate system:
|Types of companies||Subsidiary|
|Key people||Luca di Montezemolo, (Chairman)|
Piero Ferrari, (Vice-President)
Amedeo Felisa, (CEO)
Giancarlo Coppa , (CFO)
|Product (business)||Sports cars|
|Revenue||▲ Euro 1,921 Million (2008)|
Ferrari S.p.A. is an Italian Sports car manufacturer based in Maranello, Italy. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1928 as Scuderia Ferrari, the company sponsored drivers and manufactured race cars before moving into production of street-legal vehicles in 1947 as Ferrari Joint stock company. Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in Auto racing, especially in Formula One, where it has enjoyed great success.
After years of financial struggles, Enzo Ferrari sold the company's sports car division to the Fiat group in 1969 to ensure continued financial backing. Enzo Ferrari retained control of the racing division until his death in 1988 at the age of 90. Earlier that year he had overseen the launch of the Ferrari F40; the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death, and arguably one of the most famous supercars ever made.
Ferrari also has an internally managed merchandising line that licenses many products bearing the Ferrari brand, including eyewear, pens, pencils, electronic goods, perfume, clothing, high-tech bicycles, watches, cell phones, and even laptop computers.
In 2007 the Financial Times put Ferrari at the top of its list of 100 Best Workplaces in Europe.
Enzo Ferrari never intended to produce road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari (literally "Ferrari Stable", and usually used to mean "Team Ferrari", it is correctly pronounced "skoo deh REE ah") in 1929 as a sponsor for amateur drivers headquartered in Modena. Ferrari prepared and successfully raced various drivers in Alfa Romeo in motorsport cars until 1938, when he was hired by Alfa Romeo to head their motor racing department.
In 1941, Alfa Romeo was confiscated by the Fascist government of Benito Mussolini as part of the Axis Powers' war effort. Enzo Ferrari's division was small enough to be unaffected by this. Because he was prohibited by contract from racing for four years, the Scuderia briefly became Auto Avio Costruzioni Ferrari, which ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. Also known as SEFAC (Scuderia Enzo Ferrari Auto Corse), Ferrari did in fact produce one race car, the Ferrari Tipo 815, in the non-competition period. It was the first actual Ferrari car (it debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia), but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since. The factory was bombed by the Allies of World War II in 1944 and rebuilt in 1946, after the war ended, and included a works for road car production. Until List of sportspeople by nickname's death, this would remain little more than a source of funding for his first love, racing.
The first Ferrari road car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine; Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built and sold his automobiles to fund Scuderia Ferrari.
While his beautiful and fast cars quickly gained a reputation for excellence, Enzo maintained a famous distaste for his customers.
Sports car racing
In 1949, Luigi Chinetti drove a 166M to Ferrari's first win in Motorsports, the 1949 24 Hours of Le Mans. Ferrari went on to dominate the early years of the World Sportscar Championship which was created in 1953 World Sportscar Championship season, winning the World Sportscar Championship seven out of its first nine years.
When the championship changed formats in 1962 World Sportscar Championship season, Ferrari earned championships in at least one class until 1966 World Sportscar Championship season, then again in 1968 World Sportscar Championship season. Ferrari would win one final championship in 1972 World Sportscar Championship season before Enzo decided to leave sports car racing and concentrate Scuderia Ferrari solely on Formula One.
During Ferrari's seasons of the World Sportscar Championship, they also gained more wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with the factory team earning their first in 1954 24 Hours of Le Mans. Another win would come in 1958 24 Hours of Le Mans, followed by five consecutive wins from 1960 24 Hours of Le Mans to 1964 24 Hours of Le Mans. Luigi Chinetti's North American Racing Team (NART) would take Ferrari's final victory at Le Mans in 1965 24 Hours of Le Mans.
Although Scuderia Ferrari no longer participated in sports cars after 1973, they have occasionally built various successful sports cars for Privateer (motorsport). These include the 512BB/LM in the 1970s, the 333 SP which won the IMSA GT Championship in the 1990s, and currently the F430 GT2 and GT3 which are currently winning championships in their respective classes.
The Scuderia joined the Formula One World Championship in the first year of its existence, 1950. José Froilán González gave the team its first victory at the 1951 British Grand Prix.
Alberto Ascari gave Ferrari its first List of Formula One World Drivers' Champions a year later. Ferrari is the oldest team left in the championship, not to mention the most successful: the team holds nearly every Formula One record. As of 2007 Formula One season[update], the team's records include 15 World Drivers Championship titles (1952 Formula One season, 1953 Formula One season, 1956 Formula One season, 1958 Formula One season, 1961 Formula One season, 1964 Formula One season, 1975 Formula One season, 1977 Formula One season, 1979 Formula One season, 2000 Formula One season, 2001 Formula One season, 2002 Formula One season, 2003 Formula One season, 2004 Formula One season and 2007 Formula One season) 16 World Constructors Championship titles 1961 Formula One season, 1964 Formula One season, 1975 Formula One season, 1976 Formula One season, 1977 Formula One season, 1979 Formula One season, 1982 Formula One season, 1983 Formula One season, 1999 Formula One season, 2000 Formula One season, 2001 Formula One season, 2002 Formula One season, 2003 Formula One season, 2004 Formula One season, 2007 Formula One season and 2008 Formula One season, 201 Grand Prix victories, 4753.27 points, 603 podium finishes, 195 Pole position, 12,489 laps led, and 205 fastest laps in 758 Grands Prix contested.
Notable Ferrari drivers include Tazio Nuvolari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Luigi Chinetti, Alberto Ascari, Wolfgang von Trips, Phil Hill, Olivier Gendebien, Mike Hawthorn, Peter Collins, John Surtees, Lorenzo Bandini, Ludovico Scarfiotti, Jacky Ickx, Mario Andretti, Clay Regazzoni, Niki Lauda, Carlos Reutemann, Jody Scheckter, Gilles Villeneuve, Didier Pironi, Michele Alboreto, Gerhard Berger, Nigel Mansell, Alain Prost, Jean Alesi, Eddie Irvine, Rubens Barrichello, Michael Schumacher, Kimi Räikkönen, and Felipe Massa.
The Scuderia Ferrari drivers for the 2006 F1 season were Michael Schumacher and Felipe Massa. At the end of the 2006 season the team courted controversy by continuing to allow Marlboro (cigarette) to sponsor them after they, along with the other F1 teams, made a promise to end Sponsor (commercial) deals with Tobacco advertising. A five year deal worth a reported $500 million was agreed.
The drivers competing for 2008 were Felippe Massa and defending champion Kimi Räikkönen (both retained from 2007). Massa finished the season as runner-up to McLaren's Lewis Hamilton, with Räikkönen third. Massa and Räikkönen have again been signed by Ferrari for the 2009 Formula One season.
A1 Grand Prix
On October 11 2007, it was announced that Ferrari will power all A1 Grand Prix cars from the 2008-09 season.
The "Cavallino Rampante"
The famous symbol of the Ferrari race team is a black prancing stallion on a yellow shield, usually with the letters S F (for Scuderia Ferrari), with three stripes of green, white and red (the Italian national colors) at the top. The road cars have a rectangular badge on the hood (see picture above), and, optionally, the shield-shaped race logo on the sides of both front wings, close to the door.
On June 17, 1923, Enzo Ferrari won a race at the Savio track in Ravenna where he met the Countess Paolina, mother of Count Francesco Baracca, an ace of the Aeronautica Militare and national hero of World War I, who used to paint a horse on the side of his planes. The Countess asked Enzo to use this horse on his cars, suggesting that it would bring him good luck. The original "prancing horse" on Baracca's Airplane was painted in red on a white cloud-like shape, but Ferrari chose to have the horse in black (as it had been painted as a sign of grief on Baracca's squadron planes after the pilot was killed in action) and he added a Canary yellow background as this is the color of the city of Modena, his birthplace. The Ferrari horse was, from the very beginning, markedly different from the Baracca horse in most details, the most noticeable being the tail that in the original Baracca version was pointing downward.
Ferrari has used the cavallino rampante on official company stationery since 1929. Since the Spa 24 Hours of July 9, 1932, the cavallino rampante has been used on Alfa Romeos raced by Scuderia Ferrari.
The motif of a prancing horse is old, it can be found on ancient coins. A similar black horse on a yellow shield is the Coat of Arms of the Germany city of Stuttgart, home of Mercedes-Benz and the design bureau of Porsche, both being main competitors of Alfa and Ferrari in the 1930s. The city's name derives from Stutengarten, an ancient form of the German word Gestüt, which translates into English as stud farm and into Italian as scuderia. Porsche also includes the Stuttgart sign in its corporate logo, centred in the emblem of the state of Württemberg. Stuttgart's Rössle has both rear legs firmly planted on the soil, like Baracca's horse, but unlike Ferrari's cavallino.
Fabio Taglioni used the cavallino rampante on his Ducati motorbikes, as Taglioni was born at Lugo di Romagna like Baracca, and his father too was a military pilot during WWI (although not part of Baracca's squadron, as is sometimes mistakenly reported). As Ferrari's fame grew, Ducati abandoned the horse- perhaps the result of a private agreement between the two companies.
The cavallino rampante is now a Trademark of Ferrari. Cavallino Magazine uses the name, but not the logo. However, other companies use similar logos: Avanti, an Austrian company operating over 100 filling stations, uses a prancing horse logo which is nearly identical to Ferrari's, as does Iron Horse Bicycles. Many pay homage to the Ferrari logo, e.g. the Jamiroquai album Travelling without Moving.
Since the 1920s, Italian race cars of Alfa Romeo, Maserati and later Ferrari and Abarth were (and often still are) painted in "race red" (Rosso Corsa). This was the customary List of international auto racing colors of Italy, as recommended between the World Wars by the organizations that later would become the FIA. It refers to the nationality of the competing team, not that of the car manufacturer or driver. In that scheme, French-entered cars like Bugatti were blue, German like Karl Benz and Mercedes-Benz in motorsport white (since 1934 also bare sheet metal Silver Arrows), and British British racing green such as the mid 1960s Team Lotus and BRM, for instance.
Curiously, Ferrari won the 1964 World championship with John Surtees by competing the last two races in North America with cars painted in the US-American race colors white and blue, as these were not entered by the Italian factory themselves, but by the U.S.-based North American Racing Team (NART) team. This was done as a protest concerning arguments between Ferrari and the Italian Racing Authorities regarding the homologation of a new mid-engined Ferrari race car.
Partnership with Shell
Ferrari has had a long standing relationship with Shell Oil. It is a technical partnerships with Ferrari and Ducati to test as well as supply fuel and oils to the Formula One, MotoGP and World Superbike racing teams. For example, the Shell V-Power premium gasoline fuel has been developed with the many years of technical expertise between Shell and Ferrari. 
Until the early 1980s, Ferrari followed a three-number naming scheme based on Engine displacement:
- V6 and V8 models used the total displacement (in decilitres) for the first two digits and the number of cylinders as the third. Thus, the Ferrari Dino was a 2.0 L V6 powered vehicle, while the 348 used a 3.4 L V8, although, for the F355, the last digit refers to 5 valves per cylinder. Upon introduction of the 360 Modena, the digits for V8 models (which now carried a name as well as a number) refer only to total engine displacement. The numerical indication aspect of this name has carried on to the current V8 model, the F430.
- V12 models used the displacement (in cubic centimetres) of one cylinder. Therefore, the famed 365 Daytona had a 4390 cc V12. However, some newer V12-engined Ferraris, such as the 599, have three-number designations that refer only to total engine displacement.
- Flat engine models used the displacement in litres. Therefore, the 512BB was five litre flat 12 (a Berlinetta Boxer, in this case). However, the original Berlinetta Boxer was the 365 GT4 BB, which was named in a similar manner to the V12 models.
- Some models, such as the 1980 Mondial and the 1984 Testarossa did not follow a three-number naming scheme.
Most Ferraris were also given designations referring to their body style. In general, the following conventions were used:
- M ("Modificata"), placed at the end of a model's number, denotes a modified version of its predecessor and not a complete evolution (see F512M and 575M Maranello).
- GTB ("Gran Turismo Berlinetta") models are closed Berlinetta, or Coupe.
- GTS ("Gran Turismo Spyder") in older models, are open Spyders (spelt "y"), or Convertible (see 365GTS4); however, in more recent models, this suffix is used for Targa top models (see Ferrari Dino, and F355 GTS; the exception being the 348 TS, which is the only targa named differently). The convertible models now use the suffix Spyder (spelt "i") (see F355 Spider, and 360 Spider).
This naming system can be confusing, as some entirely different vehicles used the same engine type and body style. Many Ferraris also had other names affixed (like Daytona) to identify them further. Many such names are actually not official factory names. The Daytona name commemorates Ferrari's triple success in the February 1967 24 Hours of Daytona with the 330P4. Only in the 1973 Daytona 24 Hours, a 365 GTB4 model run by NART, who raced Ferrari's in America) ran second, behind a Porsche 911.
The various Ferrari Dino models were named for Enzo's son, Dino Ferrari, and were marketed as Dinos by Ferrari and sold at Ferrari dealers -- for all intents and purposes they are Ferraris.
Ferrari's first models were sports/racing cars quite different from the grand touring models that followed. See below for a complete list.
2-seat Gran Turismo
Ferrari quickly moved into the Gran Turismo market, and the bulk of the company's sales remain in this area.
- 1949 166 Inter
- 1950 195 Inter
- 1951 212 Inter
- 1951 342 America
- 1953 375 MM
- 1953 250 Europa
- 1953 375 America
- 1954 250 Europa GT
- 1956 410 Superamerica
- 1956-1963 250 GT Europa/Boano/Ellena/Pininfarina Coupe/Lusso
- 1957-1960 250 GT Berlinetta/Cabriolet/California Spyder/SWB
- 1960 400 Superamerica
- 1964-1968 275
- 1964 500 Superfast
- 1964 330
- 1966 365 California
- 1968 365
- 1968-1973 365 Daytona
- 1968 365 GTB/4 Coupe
- 1968 365 GTS/4 Spyder
- 1996-2001 Ferrari 550 Maranello
- 1996-2001 550 Maranello
- 2001 550 Barchetta
- 2002-2006 575M Maranello
- 2002-2006 575M Maranello
- 2005 575M Superamerica
- 2007 599 GTB Fiorano
The Dino was the first mid-engined Ferrari. This layout would go on to be used in most Ferraris of the 1980s and 1990s. V6 and V8 Ferrari models make up well over half of the marque's total production.
- 1968-1974 Ferrari Dino
- 1968-1969 Ferrari Dino
- 1969-1974 Ferrari Dino Berlinetta, or Coupe
- 1972-1974 Ferrari Dino (Targa top) Spyder
- 1975-1989 208/308/328 GTB/GTS
- 1989-1994 348
- 1994-1999 F355
- 1994-1999 F355 Berlinetta & GTS
- 1995-1999 F355 Spider
- 1995 F355 Challenge
- 1998-1999 355 F1
- 1999-2004 360
- 2005 F430
For a time, Ferrari built 2+2 versions of its mid-engined V8 cars. Although they looked quite different from their 2-seat counterparts, both the GT4 and Mondial were closely related to the 308 GTB.
- 1974-1980 208/308 GT4
- 1980-1993 Mondial
The company has also produced front-engined 2+2 cars, culminating in the current 612 Scaglietti and upcoming California.
- 1960-1963 250
- 1960-1963 250 GT/E 2+2
- 1964-1967 330
- 1964-1965 330 GT 2+2
- 1965-1967 330 GT 2+2 Mk II
- 1967-1971 365
- 1967-1971 365 GT 2+2
- 1968-1973 365 Daytona
- 1976-1989 400 & 412
- 1992-2003 456 & 456 M
- 2004 612 Scaglietti
- 2009 Ferrari California
Ferrari entered the mid-engined 12-cylinder fray with the Berlinetta Boxer in 1973. The later Testarossa remains one of the most famous Ferraris.
- 1973-1984 Ferrari 512 Berlinetta Boxer
- 1973-1976 Ferrari 512 Berlinetta Boxer
- 1976-1981 Ferrari 512 Berlinetta Boxer
- 1981-1984 Ferrari 512 Berlinetta Boxer
- 1984-1996 Testarossa
The company's loftiest efforts have been in the Supercar market.
- Sports cars
- 1940 AAC 815
- 1947 125 Sport
- 1947 Ferrari 159
- 1948 166 S/SC/MM
- 1950 Ferrari 195
- 1951 340 America
- 1951 Ferrari 212
- 1952 Ferrari 225
- 1952 250 S
- 1952 340 Mexico
- 1953 250 MM
- 1953 Ferrari-Abarth 166 MM/53
- 1953 625 TF
- 1953 735 S
- 1953 500 Mondial
- 1953 340 MM
- 1953 375 MM
- 1954 750 Monza
- 1954 250 Monza
- 1954 375 Plus
- 1955 118 LM
- 1955 121 LM
- 1955 410 S
- 1955 857 S
- 1956 500 TR
- 1956 290 MM
- 1956 290 S
- 1956 860 Monza
- 1956 625 LM
- 1957 500 TRC
- 1957 315 S
- 1957 335 S
- 1957 250 Testa Rossa
- 1958 412S
- 1960 250 TR60/61
- 1962 250 GTO
- 1964 250 GTO
- 1963 330 LM Berlinetta
- 1963 P/LM series
- 1969 Ferrari 212 E "Montagna"
- 1969 312 P
- 1969 512 S and 512 M
- 1971 312 PB
- 1979 Ferrari 512 BB LM
- 1987 Ferrari GTO Evoluzione
- 1987 F40
- 1988 LM
- 1994 333 SP
- 1995 F50 GT
- 2002 360 GT
- 2004 360 GTC
- 2005 FXX
- Formula 1
- 1948 125 F1
- 1950 Ferrari 275 F1
- 1950 Ferrari 340 F1
- 1950 375 F1
- 1954 Ferrari 553 F1
- 1954 Ferrari 625 F1
- 1955 Ferrari 555 F1
- 1955 Lancia D50
- 1957 Ferrari 801 F1
- 1958 Ferrari 412 MI
- 1958 246 F1
- 1959 Ferrari 256 F1
- 1961 156 F1
- 1964 Ferrari 158 F1
- 1964 Ferrari 512 F1
- 1966 Ferrari 312 F1
- 1970 312 B
- 1971 312 B2
- 1973 312 B3
- 1975 312 T
- 1976 312 T2
- 1978 312 T3
- 1979 312 T4
- 1980 312 T5
- 1981 126 C
- 1982 Ferrari 126 C2
- 1983 Ferrari 126 C3
- 1984 Ferrari 126 C4
- 1985 156/85
- 1986 F1/86
- 1987 F1/87
- 1988 Ferrari F1/88
- 1989 F1 640
- 1990 F1 641
- 1991 F1 642
- 1991 F1 643
- 1992 Ferrari F 92 A
- 1993 Ferrari F 93 A
- 1994 412 T1/T1B
- 1995 412 T2
- 1996 F 310
- 1997 Ferrari F310B
- 1998 Ferrari F 300
- 1999 Ferrari F 399
- 2000 F1-2000
- 2001 F2001
- 2002 F2002
- 2003 F2003-GA
- 2004 F2004
- 2005 F2005
- 2006 248 F1
- 2007 F2007
- Formula 2
- 1948 Ferrari 125 F2
- 1951 Ferrari 500 F2
- 1953 Ferrari 553 F2
- 1957 Dino 156 F2
- 1967 Dino 166 F2
Concept models and one-off specials
- 1949 Ferrari 166 MM Zagato Panoramica
- 1952 Ferrari 250 S Vignale Coupe
- 1954 Ferrari 375 MM "Ingrid Bergman"
- 1956 Ferrari 250GTZ
- 1962 Ferrari 250 GT Drogo
- 1966 Ferrari 365 P Pininfarina Speciale
- 1968 Ferrari 250 P5/P6
- 1968 Ferrari Dino Berlinetta
- 1969 Ferrari Sigma Grand Prix
- 1969 Ferrari 365 GT Nart Spyder
- 1969 Ferrari Pininfarina 512S Berlinetta Speciale
- 1970 Ferrari Modulo 512
- 1971 Ferrari 3Z Spider
- 1972 Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Daytona Competizione Spyder
- 1975 Ferrari 365 GTS/4 Michelotti NART Spyder
- 1975 Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Shooting Break
- 1980 Ferrari Pinin
- 1987 Ferrari 408
- 1989 Ferrari Mythos
- 1989 Colani Ferrari Testa d'Oro
- 1990 Ferrari 348 Zagato Elaborazione
- 1993 Ferrari FZ93
- 1995 Ferrari FX
- 1996 Ferrari F50 Bolide
- 2005 Ferrari GG50
- 2005 Ferrari Ascari
- 2006 Ferrari P4/5 By Pininfarina
- 2006 Ferrari Zagato 575 GTZ
- 2006 Ferrari Rossa
- 2008 Ferrari SP1
- 2010 millechili
- 2010 Ferrari F151
- ↑ "22.01.2009 FIAT GROUP Q4 AND FULL YEAR FINANCIAL REPORT". italiaspeed.com/2009/cars/industry. http://www.italiaspeed.com/2009/cars/industry/01/q4/2201.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-22.
- ↑ "Annual Report 2007" (PDF). fiatgroup.com. http://www.fiatgroup.com/en-us/shai/banns/budgets/Documents/BILANCIO_2007_ING.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
- ↑ "Ferrari's A1GP Deal". Yahoo Sport. 2007-10-11. http://uk.eurosport.yahoo.com/11102007/4/ferrari-s-a1gp-deal.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-24.
- ↑ "Ferrari and Shell V-Power". Shell Canada. 2009-01-15. http://www.shell.ca/home/content/ca-en/shell_for_motorists/fuels/vpower/faq/vpower_faq.html#7. Retrieved on 2009-01-20.
- ↑ Race results
- ↑ Race results
- ↑ Elias, Mark (May 26, 2008). "ESCAPE ROADS: 1958 Ferrari 412S". Autoweek (Detroit, Michigan: Crain Communications Inc.) 58 (22): 25. http://www.autoweek.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080530/FREE/261194472/1506. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
- ↑ 2010 Ferrari Millechili - Car News/Future Cars: 2010 and Beyond/Car Shopping/Hot Lists/Reviews/Car and Driver - Car And Driver
- Eric Gustafson. "Cavallino Rampante". Sports Car International (Oct/Nov 2000): 94.
- Ferrari World (official website)
- Ferrari.mobi (official mobile website)
- List of Ferrari-related websites at the Open Directory Project
Ferrari road car timeline, 1947–1968 — next »
|Sports car||125 S||166 S||195 S||212 Exp||225 S||250 MM||250 Monza||250 GT Tour de France||250 GT SWB||250 GTO||250 LM|
|159 S||250 S||250 Export|
|Grand tourer||166 Inter||195 Inter||212 Inter||250 Europa||250 GT Europa||250 GT Boano||250 GT Ellena||250 GT Coupe PF||250 GT Lusso||330 GTC||365 GTC|
|275 GTB||275 GTB/4|
|Spyder/Cabriolet (automobile)||250 GT||275 GTS||330 GTS||365 GTS|
|2+2 (car body style)||250 GT/E||330 GT||365 GT|
|America||340 America||375 America/MM||410 Superamerica||400 Superamerica||500 Superfast||365 California|
« previous — Ferrari road car timeline, 1960s–present
|Front-engine, rear-wheel drive layout/Front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout||Grand tourer||250||275||365 GTB/4 Daytona||550||575M||599|
|2+2 (car body style)||250GT||330GT||365GT||GTC/4||GT4||400||400i||412||456||456 M||612|
|Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout||V6 engine/V8 engine||Dino 206||Dino 246 GT||308GTB||308i||308 QV||328||348||360|
|246 GTS||308 GTS||208||208 Turbo||GTB/GTS Turbo||F355||F430|
|2+2 (car body style)||Dino GT4||Mondial 8||Mondial QV||3.2 Mondial||Mondial t|
|Flat-12||365BB||512 BB||512i BB||Testarossa||512TR||F512M|
|Halo vehicle||250 GTO||250 LM||288 GTO||F40||F50||Enzo Ferrari||FXX||FXX Evolution|