Ferrari 312T

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Ferrari 312T
Auto racing Formula One
Constructor Scuderia Ferrari
Automotive design Mauro Forghieri
Technical Specifications
Chassis Aluminium Monocoque
Suspension (front) Double wishbone suspension, inboard Spring (device)/Shock absorber.
Suspension (rear) Double wishbone suspension
Internal combustion engine Ferrari 015 3000Cubic centimetre Flat-12, Naturally aspirated, Mid-engine, Longitudinal engine
Transmission (mechanics) 5-speed transverse gearbox Manual transmission
Tire Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
Competition History
Notable entrants Scuderia Ferrari
Notable drivers Niki Lauda,
Clay Regazzoni,
Carlos Reutemann
Debut 1975
 Races   Wins    Pole position     Fastest lap   
Constructors' Championships 4 (1975 Formula One season,1976 Formula One season,1977 Formula One season,1979 Formula One season)
Drivers' Championships 3 (Niki Lauda, 1975 Formula One season,1977 Formula One season)
(Jody Scheckter, 1979 Formula One season)

The Ferrari 312T was a Ferrari Formula One car design, based on the Ferrari 312B3 from 1974. In various versions, it was used from 1975 until 1980. It was designed by Mauro Forghieri for the 1975 Formula One season and was an uncomplicated and clean design, that responded to mechanical upgrades.

The 312T series won 27 races, four constructors' and three drivers' championships, and was replaced for the 1981 Formula One season by the 126 C, Ferrari's first Turbocharger F1 car.


Mechanical configuration

The car was powered by the powerful and ultra reliable Flat-12 Engine which gave around 510bhp, the T in the name stood for 'transverse', as the gearbox was mounted in this way, improving the car's handling characteristics, which had been the downfall of its predecessor.



Niki Lauda's 1975 Formula One season 312T on display.

Niki Lauda tested the car extensively during the off season, ready for a full on championship challenge. The hard work paid off, for after a slow start in which Brabham, Tyrrell Racing and McLaren put up strong competition, Lauda won 4 out of 5 races mid season before snatching the title at Autodromo Nazionale Monza by finishing third, whilst Clay Regazzoni's win in that race secured Ferrari its first constructors' championship since 1964. Lauda went on to win the American Grand Prix at season's end, confirming Ferrari's superiority in 1975.


Niki Lauda practicing at the Nürburgring during the 1976 German Grand Prix.
Clay Regazzoni in a 312T2 in 1976.

The same drivers, Lauda and Regazzoni, were retained for the 1976 Formula One season. The 312T was used for the first three races of the season (Lauda won the first two and Regazzoni the third), and was then replaced by a modified version, the 312T2. This was effectively the same car, with detail changes to conform to the newly introduced regulations which included the banning of the tall Airbox - instead NACA duct air intakes were placed on the cockpit sides. The 312T2 was if anything, more successful than the 312T. Lauda was comfortably leading the world championship after another 3 wins, when at the 1976 German Grand Prix at Nürburgring he had a massive accident caused by a suspected rear Suspension (vehicle) failure. In the aftermath he nearly burned to death, but was miraculously back racing just 6 weeks later. Lauda conceded the title by just a single point to James Hunt, but the 312T2's superiority helped Ferrari win its second consecutive constructor's title.


Lauda and Carlos Reutemann used the 312T2B to great effect in 1977, for although it was no longer the best car it was good enough to win the driver's championship for Lauda, who won more through the car's reliability than outright speed. He took 3 wins, while Reutemann won once. The constructors' championship was also secured for a third successive season before Lauda walked out on the team before season's end. He was replaced by the fiery Canadian Gilles Villeneuve but he couldn't get a handle on the T2B, as its neutral handling didn't suit his oversteering driving style. The Ferrari 312T2 had a lot of development work done to it, with several different noses tried, many rear wing profiles some especially tailored for specific circuits designed and numerous changes to the suspension and rear bodywork.

Ferrari also created a six-wheeled version dubbed the T6. The car followed in the footsteps of the Tyrrell P34, but instead of four smaller front wheels, the T6 used 4 normal sized rear wheels, with two wheels for each rim. The car was never raced.[1]


Ferrari 312T3 driven by Carlos Reutemann in 1978 United States Grand Prix at Watkins Glen International

The 312T3 was introduced for 1978 for Villeneuve and Reutemann. It was much cleaner aerodynamically, and the flat 12 engine was tuned to give around 515bhp. A switch to Michelin tyres meant a redesign of the suspension was necessary. All the hard work came to nothing though as the pioneering Lotus 79 Ground effect in cars "wing car" took on and beat all comers with ease that season, and Ferrari were left to pick up the pieces of any Lotus failures. Reutemann won 4 races, whilst Villeneuve won for the first time at the final race, his home race in Canada, but it was more a season of consolidation. Reutemann moved to Team Lotus for 1979, replaced by Jody Scheckter. Ferrari was only 3rd in the Constructors Championship.


In 1979, a significant amount of progress was made in aerodynamics and to challenge Team Lotus, Forghieri realised he had to follow their lead and design a Ground effect in cars car for 1979. The 312T4, introduced for 1979 was closely based on the 312T3. Its origins placed restrictions on the aerodynamic design since the 312T3 had not been designed with ground effect in mind, and the flat 12 engine was too wide to permit the correct underbody design to optimise the ground effect. It was good enough to win 6 races in 1979, three each for Villeneuve and Scheckter. Other solid placings helped Ferrari win its fourth constructors' championship in 5 seasons and Scheckter his only drivers' championship.


The 1980 Formula One season saw further aerodynamic progress by Cosworth DFV teams, and a heavily-updated version of the 312T4, the 312T5 was introduced. As with the previous season, Ferrari was totally outclassed as their wide 312 "Boxer" engine did not suit the aerodynamic needs. The car was unreliable, slow and wasn't very effective against the competition. For the first time since 1973 Formula One season, Ferrari did not win a race for an entire season, and the team finished 10th in the Constructors' championship. Scheckter even failed to qualify in Canada and, after only managing 2 points, retired from the sport at the end of the year.

See also

  • McLaren M23
  • Tyrrell P34
  • Lotus 78
  • Brabham BT44


  • Tremayne, David & Hughes, Mark (1998). "The Concise Encyclopedia Of Formula One, Paragon.
  • article about 312T
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